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Artificial Intelligence and Robotics – Their Impact on National Security
ME6 Eng Kwee Guan

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has often been described as the next colossus in the military realm, with its capabilities far surpassing that of an ordinary human. In this essay, the author focuses on how AI and Robotics affect the military security for nations like Singapore. He highlights that AI and Robotics will bring about significant benefits, and any new threats will be manageable. The author first begins with a discussion of the key military security vulnerabilities. He then introduces the subject of AI and Robotics, considers the new opportunities they bring, and examines the potential threats that can arise within the military security environment. The author then concludes by deliberating how the character of warfare can change with the extensive adoption of AI and Robotics.

Feasibility Of A Non-Nuclear State To Deter A Nuclear Armed Adversary
MAJ Samuel Tan Wei Yi

In this essay, the author argues that while it is feasible for non-nuclear states to deter nuclear armed adversaries, there are inherent challenges for non-nuclear states to employ an effective deterrence strategy. The author begins by explaining the theory of deterrence and exploring the prevailing sentment that nuclear-armed states have a disproportionate advantage compared to non-nuclear states due to the exponential military power accorded by nuclear capabilities, which makes deterrence an inept strategy for non-nuclear states. Next, he assesses the feasibility of two existing strategies that a non-nuclear state can potentially pursue to deter a nuclear armed adversary, through two case studies. From these case studies, the author argues that deterrence strategies against nuclear armed adversaries have been largely ineffective in practice. Finally, the author assesses the potential adoption of conventional deterrence as a strategy for non-nuclear states to deter nuclear adversaries. He concludes that the advantages possessed by nuclear adversaries may decrease over time and that the future prospects for non-nuclear states' deterrence strategies will become more feasible, moving forward.

The Kosovo Air Campaign Proved to be More Challenging than Expected, Shaped by Mistakes and Misjudgements.
ME5 Jeremy Kang Wei Sheng

In this essay, the author highlights that during the Kosovo Air Campaign, also known as Operation Allied Force (OAF), the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) leaders misjudged the capabilites of airpower and the importance of Kosovo to the Serbians. In addition, the author also felt that poor strategic decisions regarding the need to maintain political unity, exclusion of a ground option and deviation from conventional military doctrine all added to the challenges that dogged NATO forces in OAF. In this essay, the author presents his research in three parts. First, he discusses NATO's expectations of the Kosovo campaign. He then identifies the misjudgements and mistakes made by NATO, and assess how these result in challenges for them. Finally, the author assesses the counter-claim that NATO's actons actually reduced operational friction.

Centre of Gravity in the Gulf War
MAJ Jitinder Singh

In this essay, the author analyses and discusses why war planners did not misunderstand Iraq's Centre Of Gravity (COG) but rather, failed to reach a consensus on a common and well-developed COG for the campaign. He also considers why failure to identify a common COG did not hinder the campaign's success, but nevertheless remains an important step to undertake for future campaigns. The author first examines the difference in perspectives of war planners and why they identified Iraq's COG the way they did. Next, he examines the friction that arose because of the failure to agree on a common COG. Finally, the author also examines why the differences in COG identfication did not matter to the campaign's outcome. In conclusion, the author also explains why the appropriate utility of the COG concept remains important and how differences in perspectives can be managed.

Guadalcanal Campaign and Its Outcome in the Pacific War
ME5 Xing Minjie

In this essay, the author critically examines the significance of the Guadalcanal Campaign in relation to the overall outcome of the Pacific War. The essay delves into a thorough assessment of the campaign, weighing both its advantages and disadvantages, to justify its ultimate impact. By analysing primary sources, historical accounts and scholarly perspectives, the author investigates the strategic, operational and symbolic aspects of the Guadalcanal Campaign. He explores the major advantages of the campaign, such as the successful defence of Henderson Field, the disruption of Japanese supply lines and the turning point it provided for the Allied forces. Additionally, the author also addresses the disadvantages, including the heavy casualties suffered by both sides, the protracted nature of the campaign and the ongoing nature of the Pacific War beyond Guadalcanal. In conclusion, the author discusses the decisive nature of the Guadalcanal Campaign, providing valuable insights into its historical significance and its role in shaping the overall outcome of the Pacific War.

Last updated on 01 Dec 2023
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